# Physast Uga Homework In Spanish

Do you need help with with essay, research paper, homework or even dissertation?

Visit our website - https://goo.gl/HKbmHS (assignmenthelp24.com)

=================>>>CLICK HERE<<<=================

=================>>>CLICK HERE<<<=================

=================>>>CLICK HERE<<<=================

goo.gl

goo.gl

=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP<<<=================

=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP<<<=================

=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP<<<=================

el poder del arte bernini analysis essay

pro censorship essay

writing essays in english language and linguistics

how to select technology essay topics

how to write an argumentative essay in 9 steps

divided line plato essay

physast uga homework chart

informational essay topics for 7th graders

bpae 102 assignment 2015-16 flu symptoms

a good hook for a reflective essay on personal experiences

rise and fall of the roman empire thesis statement

collection cover letter sample

different types of freedom of expression essay

writing a cover letter for a resume when you have been not working

disc d personality analysis essay

therese anne druart bibliography example

case study refugee migration services

gloria anzaldua how to tame a wild tongue thesis statement

film noir definition essay topics

good intro paragraph research paper

depuis la nuit des temps dissertation sample

mozart k 488 analysis essay

essay in kannada language about cows

mercutio's queen mab speech essay pdf

asiatic lily descriptive essay

why lmu essay question

think br a shift in celebrity culture essay

escuta essays

mba assignment help indians

university admissions essay sample

essay comunity work ethics

illegal parameter assignment

mcs 41 solved assignment 2014 toyota

ontologie beispiel essay

university admissions essay topic

catchy cover letter statements

my parents bedroom uwem akpan analysis essay

essay on traffic rules and road safety

baptiste mylondo bibliography de mariama ba

com 200 interpersonal communication week 2 assignment part

his/110 week 4 assignments

essay for upsc cpf 2016

man of the family definition essay

point form essay outline

early teenage pregnancy research paper

an essay about life is beautiful

dunciad summary analysis essay

illicium griffithii descriptive essay

jurassic park in sonipat entry ticket Where Can I Find Someone to Write My College Paper assignment

essay on present politics in karnataka

ap english language released essay prompts

case to case study

process speech assignment stephen lucas

polsis essay guide 2013

pink floyd pulse concert attendance essay

the artist film essay samples

background contextual factors essay

essay about newspaper in english

group critical thinking exercises

a good thesis statement for plagiarism

case study house 22 wiki

common app essay faqs

essay thesis maker

writing a good english literature essay

oxazolines synthesis essay

upon westminster bridge essays

education and success essay topic

general physics with bioscience essays

informative essay editing checklist

how long cover letter should be

saint prix les arnayrohomework

what does narrative essay mean

jersey turnpike dance definition essay

pre ap chemistry homework 10b21

sat essay template creating

cpa cover letter public to private

nutrition brochure Where Can I Find Someone to Write My College Paper rubric assignment

scholarship essay cover sheet

ptolemy greatest accomplishment essay

wreck tour thesis statements

how to do cover letter for apa

hisd homework policy for elementary

health and fitness argumentative essay sample

utang na loob essay typer

ignorance definition essay outline

spm 2005 english essay music

sport advantages essay

act 3 scene 5 romeo and juliet language analysis essays

gerrit komrij essays of elia

essays on argumentative topics on diet pills

cosmicomics by italo calvino analysis essay

t totals maths coursework

venez essayer definition

what is life skills essay

sample problem solution essays 6th grade

examples of good philosophy essays

how to write an outline essay

ouest france lessay 50th

a level language analysis Where Can I Find Someone to Write My College Paper essay

chinese exclusion act 1882 essay outline

frankenstein similarities and differences essay

annotated bibliography example apa 6th edition format title

how to write a refutation in an argumentative essay

cambridge pre u global perspectives essay examples

cover letter examples for applying to college

tok essays for 2008

world war essays

gay marriage should not be legalized essay

sat cursive essay

counter claim in an essay

imaginative english essay ideas

j'essaye de t'oublier avec un autre youtube downloader

the dialogic imagination four essays bakhtin polyphony

Where Can I Find Someone to Write My College Paper the oxbow painting analysis essay

hamlet film essay

silence of the lambs movie essay

maison a vendre a essays 6240002

persuasive writing Where Can I Find Someone to Write My College Paper homework year 5

existential definition example essays

algebra homework calculator

financial management case study chapter 3

western flower thrips descriptive essay

my resolution for new year essay

hidradenitis suppurativa personal essay

receptionist cover letter examples with no experience

describe a dangerous situation essay

traffic jam solution essay sample

elg exemplification essay

john proctor tragic hero persuasive essay

harriet tubman essay outline

nattupura kalaigal in tamil essay

product management research paper

ap central human geography essays

essays 150 words every sixth

pdb Where Can I Find Someone to Write My College Paper xyz homework

fundamental definition example essay

their eyes were watching god essay theme

ms 10 ignou solved assignment papers

research paper on ramada hotel

alexandra marinina bibliography format

case study research using senior design projects an example application

persuasive essay on bilingualism

help my essay is due tomorrow meaning

nashville scarlett and gunnar 4x05 homework

school homework help for children

untidy room essay writing

spinner probability with critical thinking

china way to progress essay

mvdr stanislav cienciala bibliography

essay topics on film noir photography

**Unformatted text preview: **halliday_c01_001-012v2.qxd 21-08-2009 10:39 Page 8 HALLIDAY REVISED CHAPTER 1 MEASUREMENT 8 From Eq. 1-8, the total mass msand of the sand grains is the product of the density of silicon dioxide and the total volume of the sand grains: m sand ϭ SiO2Vgrains. Substituting SiO ϭ 2.600 ϫ 10 3 kg/m3 and the critical value of e ϭ 0.80, we ﬁnd that liquefaction occurs when the sand density is less than 2 (1-12) sand ϭ Substituting this expression into Eq. 1-10 and then substituting for Vgrains from Eq. 1-11 lead to sand ϭ SiO2 Vtotal SiO2 ϭ . Vtotal 1 ϩ e 1ϩe (1-13) 2.600 ϫ 10 3 kg/m3 ϭ 1.4 ϫ 103 kg/m3. 1.80 (Answer) A building can sink several meters in such liquefaction. Additional examples, video, and practice available at WileyPLUS Measurement in Physics Physics is based on measurement of physical quantities. Certain physical quantities have been chosen as base quantities (such as length, time, and mass); each has been defined in terms of a standard and given a unit of measure (such as meter, second, and kilogram). Other physical quantities are defined in terms of the base quantities and their standards and units. SI Units The unit system emphasized in this book is the International System of Units (SI). The three physical quantities displayed in Table 1-1 are used in the early chapters. Standards, which must be both accessible and invariable, have been established for these base quantities by international agreement. These standards are used in all physical measurement, for both the base quantities and the quantities derived from them. Scientiﬁc notation and the preﬁxes of Table 1-2 are used to simplify measurement notation. successively by conversion factors written as unity and the units are manipulated like algebraic quantities until only the desired units remain. Length The meter is deﬁned as the distance traveled by light during a precisely speciﬁed time interval. Time The second is deﬁned in terms of the oscillations of light emitted by an atomic (cesium-133) source. Accurate time signals are sent worldwide by radio signals keyed to atomic clocks in standardizing laboratories. Mass The kilogram is deﬁned in terms of a platinum – iridium standard mass kept near Paris. For measurements on an atomic scale, the atomic mass unit, deﬁned in terms of the atom carbon-12, is usually used. Density The density r of a material is the mass per unit volume: Changing Units Conversion of units may be performed by usϭ ing chain-link conversions in which the original data are multiplied m . V (1-8) Tutoring problem available (at instructor’s discretion) in WileyPLUS and WebAssign SSM • – ••• Worked-out solution available in Student Solutions Manual WWW Worked-out solution is at Number of dots indicates level of problem difﬁculty ILW Interactive solution is at http://www.wiley.com/college/halliday Additional information available in The Flying Circus of Physics and at ﬂyingcircusofphysics.com sec. 1-5 Length •1 SSM Earth is approximately a sphere of radius 6.37 ϫ 106 m. What are (a) its circumference in kilometers, (b) its surface area in square kilometers, and (c) its volume in cubic kilometers? •2 A gry is an old English measure for length, deﬁned as 1/10 of a line, where line is another old English measure for length, deﬁned as 1/12 inch. A common measure for length in the publishing business is a point, deﬁned as 1/72 inch. What is an area of 0.50 gry2 in points squared (points2)? •3 The micrometer (1 mm) is often called the micron. (a) How many microns make up 1.0 km? (b) What fraction of a centimeter equals 1.0 mm? (c) How many microns are in 1.0 yd? •4 Spacing in this book was generally done in units of points and picas: 12 points ϭ 1 pica, and 6 picas ϭ 1 inch. If a ﬁgure was misplaced in the page proofs by 0.80 cm, what was the misplacement in (a) picas and (b) points? •5 SSM WWW Horses are to race over a certain English meadow for a distance of 4.0 furlongs. What is the race distance in (a) rods halliday_c01_001-012v2.qxd 21-08-2009 10:39 Page 9 HALLIDAY REVISED PA R T 1 PROBLEMS and (b) chains? (1 furlong ϭ 201.168 m, 1 rod ϭ 5.0292 m, and 1 chain ϭ 20.117 m.) ••6 You can easily convert common units and measures electronically, but you still should be able to use a conversion table, such as those in Appendix D. Table 1-6 is part of a conversion table for a system of volume measures once common in Spain; a volume of 1 fanega is equivalent to 55.501 dm3 (cubic decimeters). To complete the table, what numbers (to three signiﬁcant ﬁgures) should be entered in (a) the cahiz column, (b) the fanega column, (c) the cuartilla column, and (d) the almude column, starting with the top blank? Express 7.00 almudes in (e) medios, (f) cahizes, and (g) cubic centimeters (cm3). Table 1-6 Problem 6 cahiz 1 cahiz ϭ 1 fanega ϭ 1 cuartilla ϭ 1 almude ϭ 1 medio ϭ fanega cuartilla almude medio 1 12 1 48 4 1 144 12 3 1 288 24 6 2 1 ••7 ILW Hydraulic engineers in the United States often use, as a unit of volume of water, the acre-foot, deﬁned as the volume of water that will cover 1 acre of land to a depth of 1 ft. A severe thunderstorm dumped 2.0 in. of rain in 30 min on a town of area 26 km2. What volume of water, in acre-feet, fell on the town? ••8 Harvard Bridge, which connects MIT with its fraternities across the Charles River, has a length of 364.4 Smoots plus one ear. The unit of one Smoot is based on the length of Oliver Reed Smoot, Jr., class of 1962, who was carried or dragged length by length across the bridge so that other pledge members of the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity could mark off (with paint) 1-Smoot lengths along the bridge. The marks have been repainted biannually by fraternity pledges since the initial measurement, usually during times of trafﬁc congestion so that the police cannot easily interfere. (Presumably, the police were originally upset because the Smoot is not an SI base unit, but these days they seem to have accepted the unit.) Figure 1-4 shows three parallel paths, measured in Smoots (S), Willies (W), and Zeldas (Z). What is the length of 50.0 Smoots in (a) Willies and (b) Zeldas? 0 212 32 S 0 258 W 60 216 Z Fig. 1-4 Problem 8. ••9 Antarctica is roughly semicircular, with a radius of 2000 km (Fig. 1-5). The average thickness of its ice cover is 3000 m. How many cubic centimeters of ice does Antarctica contain? (Ignore the curvature of Earth.) 2000 km 3000 m Fig. 1-5 Problem 9. 9 sec. 1-6 Time •10 Until 1883, every city and town in the United States kept its own local time. Today, travelers reset their watches only when the time change equals 1.0 h. How far, on the average, must you travel in degrees of longitude between the time-zone boundaries at which your watch must be reset by 1.0 h? (Hint: Earth rotates 360° in about 24 h.) •11 For about 10 years after the French Revolution, the French government attempted to base measures of time on multiples of ten: One week consisted of 10 days, one day consisted of 10 hours, one hour consisted of 100 minutes, and one minute consisted of 100 seconds. What are the ratios of (a) the French decimal week to the standard week and (b) the French decimal second to the standard second? •12 The fastest growing plant on record is a Hesperoyucca whipplei that grew 3.7 m in 14 days. What was its growth rate in micrometers per second? •13 Three digital clocks A, B, and C run at different rates and do not have simultaneous readings of zero. Figure 1-6 shows simultaneous readings on pairs of the clocks for four occasions. (At the earliest occasion, for example, B reads 25.0 s and C reads 92.0 s.) If two events are 600 s apart on clock A, how far apart are they on (a) clock B and (b) clock C? (c) When clock A reads 400 s, what does clock B read? (d) When clock C reads 15.0 s, what does clock B read? (Assume negative readings for prezero times.) 312 512 A (s) 25.0 125 200 290 B (s) 92.0 142 C (s) Fig. 1-6 Problem 13. •14 A lecture period (50 min) is close to 1 microcentury. (a) How long is a microcentury in minutes? (b) Using percentage difference ϭ approximation actual Ϫ actual 100, ﬁnd the percentage difference from the approximation. •15 A fortnight is a charming English measure of time equal to 2.0 weeks (the word is a contraction of “fourteen nights”). That is a nice amount of time in pleasant company but perhaps a painful string of microseconds in unpleasant company. How many microseconds are in a fortnight? •16 Time standards are now based on atomic clocks. A promising second standard is based on pulsars, which are rotating neutron stars (highly compact stars consisting only of neutrons). Some rotate at a rate that is highly stable, sending out a radio beacon that sweeps brieﬂy across Earth once with each rotation, like a lighthouse beacon. Pulsar PSR 1937ϩ21 is an example; it rotates once every 1.557 806 448 872 75 Ϯ 3 ms, where the trailing Ϯ3 indicates the uncertainty in the last decimal place (it does not mean Ϯ3 ms). (a) How many rotations does PSR 1937ϩ21 make in 7.00 days? (b) How much time does the pulsar take to rotate exactly one million times and (c) what is the associated uncertainty? •17 SSM Five clocks are being tested in a laboratory. Exactly at noon, as determined by the WWV time signal, on successive days of a week the clocks read as in the following table. Rank the ﬁve halliday_c01_001-012v2.qxd 21-08-2009 10:39 Page 10 HALLIDAY REVISED CHAPTER 1 MEASUREMENT 10 clocks according to their relative value as good timekeepers, best to worst. Justify your choice. Clock Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat. A 12:36:40 12:36:56 12:37:12 12:37:27 12:37:44 12:37:59 12:38:14 B 11:59:59 12:00:02 11:59:57 12:00:07 12:00:02 11:59:56 12:00:03 C 15:50:45 15:51:43 15:52:41 15:53:39 15:54:37 15:55:35 15:56:33 D 12:03:59 12:02:52 12:01:45 12:00:38 11:59:31 11:58:24 11:57:17 E 12:03:59 12:02:49 12:01:54 12:01:52 12:01:32 12:01:22 12:01:12 ••18 Because Earth’s rotation is gradually slowing, the length of each day increases: The day at the end of 1.0 century is 1.0 ms longer than the day at the start of the century. In 20 centuries, what is the total of the daily increases in time? range, give the lower value and the higher value, respectively, for the following. (a) How many cubic meters of water are in a cylindrical cumulus cloud of height 3.0 km and radius 1.0 km? (b) How many 1-liter pop bottles would that water ﬁll? (c) Water has a density of 1000 kg/m3. How much mass does the water in the cloud have? ••27 Iron has a density of 7.87 g/cm3, and the mass of an iron atom is 9.27 ϫ 10Ϫ26 kg. If the atoms are spherical and tightly packed, (a) what is the volume of an iron atom and (b) what is the distance between the centers of adjacent atoms? ••28 A mole of atoms is 6.02 ϫ 1023 atoms. To the nearest order of magnitude, how many moles of atoms are in a large domestic cat? The masses of a hydrogen atom, an oxygen atom, and a carbon atom are 1.0 u, 16 u, and 12 u, respectively. (Hint: Cats are sometimes known to kill a mole.) •••19 Suppose that, while lying on a beach near the equator watching the Sun set over a calm ocean, you start a stopwatch just as the top of the Sun disappears. You then stand, elevating your eyes by a height H ϭ 1.70 m, and stop the watch when the top of the Sun again disappears. If the elapsed time is t ϭ 11.1 s, what is the radius r of Earth? ••29 On a spending spree in Malaysia, you buy an ox with a weight of 28.9 piculs in the local unit of weights: 1 picul ϭ 100 gins, 1 gin ϭ 16 tahils, 1 tahil ϭ 10 chees, and 1 chee ϭ 10 hoons. The weight of 1 hoon corresponds to a mass of 0.3779 g. When you arrange to ship the ox home to your astonished family, how much mass in kilograms must you declare on the shipping manifest? (Hint: Set up multiple chain-link conversions.) sec. 1-7 Mass •20 The record for the largest glass bottle was set in 1992 by a team in Millville, New Jersey — they blew a bottle with a volume of 193 U.S. ﬂuid gallons. (a) How much short of 1.0 million cubic centimeters is that? (b) If the bottle were ﬁlled with water at the leisurely rate of 1.8 g/min, how long would the ﬁlling take? Water has a density of 1000 kg/m3. ••30 Water is poured into a container that has a small leak. The mass m of the water is given as a function of time t by m ϭ 5.00t0.8 Ϫ 3.00t ϩ 20.00, with t Ն 0, m in grams, and t in seconds. (a) At what time is the water mass greatest, and (b) what is that greatest mass? In kilograms per minute, what is the rate of mass change at (c) t ϭ 2.00 s and (d) t ϭ 5.00 s? •21 Earth has a mass of 5.98 ϫ 1024 kg. The average mass of the atoms that make up Earth is 40 u. How many atoms are there in Earth? •22 Gold, which has a density of 19.32 g/cm3, is the most ductile metal and can be pressed into a thin leaf or drawn out into a long ﬁber. (a) If a sample of gold, with a mass of 27.63 g, is pressed into a leaf of 1.000 mm thickness, what is the area of the leaf? (b) If, instead, the gold is drawn out into a cylindrical ﬁber of radius 2.500 mm, what is the length of the ﬁber? •23 SSM (a) Assuming that water has a density of exactly 1 g/cm3, ﬁnd the mass of one cubic meter of water in kilograms. (b) Suppose that it takes 10.0 h to drain a container of 5700 m3 of water. What is the “mass ﬂow rate,” in kilograms per second, of water from the container? ••24 Grains of ﬁne California beach sand are approximately spheres with an average radius of 50 m and are made of silicon dioxide, which has a density of 2600 kg/m3. What mass of sand grains would have a total surface area (the total area of all the individual spheres) equal to the surface area of a cube 1.00 m on an edge? ••25 During heavy rain, a section of a mountainside measuring 2.5 km horizontally, 0.80 km up along the slope, and 2.0 m deep slips into a valley in a mud slide. Assume that the mud ends up uniformly distributed over a surface area of the valley measuring 0.40 km ϫ 0.40 km and that mud has a density of 1900 kg/m3. What is the mass of the mud sitting above a 4.0 m2 area of the valley ﬂoor? ••26 One cubic centimeter of a typical cumulus cloud contains 50 to 500 water drops, which have a typical radius of 10 mm. For that •••31 A vertical container with base area measuring 14.0 cm by 17.0 cm is being ﬁlled with identical pieces of candy, each with a volume of 50.0 mm3 and a mass of 0.0200 g. Assume that the volume of the empty spaces between the candies is negligible. If the height of the candies in the container increases at the rate of 0.250 cm/s, at what rate (kilograms per minute) does the mass of the candies in the container increase? Additional Problems 32 In the United States, a doll house has the scale of 1Ϻ12 of a 1 real house (that is, each length of the doll house is 12 that of the real house) and a miniature house (a doll house to ﬁt within a doll house) has the scale of 1Ϻ144 of a real house. Suppose a real house (Fig. 1-7) has a front length of 20 m, a depth of 12 m, a height of 6.0 m, and a standard sloped roof (vertical triangular faces on the ends) of height 3.0 m. In cubic meters, what are the volumes of the corresponding (a) doll house and (b) miniature house? 3.0 m 6.0 m 20 m 12 m Fig. 1-7 Problem 32. halliday_c01_001-012v2.qxd 21-08-2009 10:39 Page 11 HALLIDAY REVISED PA R T 1 PROBLEMS 33 SSM A ton is a measure of volume frequently used in shipping, but that use requires some care because there are at least three types of tons: A displacement ton is equal to 7 barrels bulk, a freight ton is equal to 8 barrels bulk, and a register ton is equal to 20 barrels bulk. A barrel bulk is another measure of volume: 1 barrel bulk ϭ 0.1415 m3. Suppose you spot a shipping order for “73 tons” of M&M candies, and you are certain that the client who sent the order intended “ton” to refer to volume (instead of weight or mass, as discussed in Chapter 5). If the client actually meant displacement tons, how many extra U.S. bushels of the candies will you erroneously ship if you interpret the order as (a) 73 freight tons and (b) 73 register tons? (1 m3 ϭ 28.378 U.S. bushels.) 34 Two types of barrel units were in use in the 1920s in the United States. The apple barrel had a legally set volume of 7056 cubic inches; the cranberry barrel, 5826 cubic inches. If a merchant sells 20 cranberry barrels of goods to a customer who thinks he is receiving apple barrels, what is the discrepancy in the shipment volume in liters? 35 An old English children’s rhyme states, “Little Miss Muffet sat on a tuffet, eating her curds and whey, when along came a spider who sat down beside her. . . .” The spider sat down not because of the curds and whey but because Miss Muffet had a stash of 11 tuffets of dried ﬂies. The volume measure of a tuffet is given by 1 tuffet ϭ 2 pecks ϭ 0.50 Imperial bushel, where 1 Imperial bushel ϭ 36.3687 liters (L). What was Miss Muffet’s stash in (a) pecks, (b) Imperial bushels, and (c) liters? 36 Table 1-7 shows some old measures of liquid volume. To complete the table, what numbers (to three signiﬁcant ﬁgures) should be entered in (a) the wey column, (b) the chaldron column, (c) the bag column, (d) the pottle column, and (e) the gill column, starting with the top blank? (f) The volume of 1 bag is equal to 0.1091 m3. If an old story has a witch cooking up some vile liquid in a cauldron of volume 1.5 chaldrons, what is the volume in cubic meters? Table 1-7 Problem 36 wey 1 wey ϭ 1 chaldron ϭ 1 bag ϭ 1 pottle ϭ 1 gill ϭ chaldron bag pottle gill 1 10/9 40/3 640 120 240 37 A typical sugar cube has an edge length of 1 cm. If you had a cubical box that contained a mole of sugar cubes, what would its edge length be? (One mole ϭ 6.02 ϫ 1023 units.) 38 An old manuscript reveals that a landowner in the time of King Arthur held 3.00 acres of plowed land plus a livestock area of 25.0 perches by 4.00 perches. What was the total area in (a) the old unit of roods and (b) the more modern unit of square meters? Here, 1 acre is an area of 40 perches by 4 perches, 1 rood is an area of 40 perches by 1 perch, and 1 perch is the length 16.5 ft. 39 SSM A tourist purchases a car in England and ships it home to the United States. The car sticker advertised that the car’s fuel consumption was at the rate of 40 miles per gallon on the open road. 11 The tourist does not realize that the U.K. gallon differs from the U.S. gallon: 1 U.K. gallon ϭ 4.546 090 0 liters 1 U.S. gallon ϭ 3.785 411 8 liters. For a trip of 750 miles (in the United States), how many gallons of fuel does (a) the mistaken tourist believe she needs and (b) the car actually require? 40 Using conversions and data in the chapter, determine the number of hydrogen atoms required to obtain 1.0 kg of hydrogen. A hydrogen atom has a mass of 1.0 u. 41 SSM A cord is a volume of cut wood equal to a stack 8 ft long, 4 ft wide, and 4 ft high. How many cords are in 1.0 m3? 42 One molecule of water (H2O) contains two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.A hydrogen atom has a mass of 1.0 u and an atom of oxygen has a mass of 16 u, approximately. (a) What is the mass in kilograms of one molecule of water? (b) How many molecules of water are in the world’s oceans, which have an estimated total mass of 1.4 ϫ 1021 kg? 43 A person on a diet might lose 2.3 kg per week. Express the mass loss rate in milligrams per second, as if the dieter could sense the second-by-second loss. 44 What mass of water fell on the town in Problem 7? Water has a density of 1.0 ϫ 103 kg/m3. 45 (a) A unit of time sometimes used in microscopic physics is the shake. One shake equals 10Ϫ8 s. Are there more shakes in a second than there are seconds in a year? (b) Humans have existed for about 106 years, whereas the universe is about 1010 years old. If the age of the universe is deﬁned as 1 “universe day,” where a universe day consists of “universe seconds” as a normal day consists of normal seconds, how many universe seconds have humans existed? 46 A unit of area often used in measuring land areas is the hectare, deﬁned as 104 m2. An open-pit coal mine consumes 75 hectares of land, down to a depth of 26 m, each year. What volume of earth, in cubic kilometers, is removed in this time? 47 SSM An astronomical unit (AU) is the average distance between Earth and the Sun, approximately 1.50 ϫ 108 km. The speed of light is about 3.0 ϫ 108 m/s. Express the speed of light in astronomical units per minute. 48 The common Eastern mole, a mammal, typically has a mass of 75 g, which corresponds to about 7.5 moles of atoms. (A mole of atoms is 6.02 ϫ 1023 atoms.) In atomic mass units (u), what is the average mass of the atoms in the common Eastern mole? 49 A traditional unit of length in Japan is the ken (1 ken ϭ 1.97 m). What are the ratios of (a) square kens to square meters and (b) cubic kens to cubic meters? What is the volume of a cylindrical water tank of height 5.50 kens and radius 3.00 kens in (c) cubic kens and (d) cubic meters? 50 You receive orders to sail due east for 24.5 mi to put your salvage ship directly over a sunken pirate ship. However, when your divers probe the ocean ﬂoor at that location and ﬁnd no evidence of a ship, you radio back to your source of information, only to discover that the sailing distance was supposed to be 24.5 nautical miles, not regular miles. Use the Length table in Appendix D to calculate how far horizontally you are from the pirate ship in kilometers. halliday_c01_001-012v2.qxd 21-08-2009 10:39 Page 12 HALLIDAY REVISED 12 CHAPTER 1 MEASUREMENT 51 The cubit is an ancient unit of length based on the distance between the elbow and the tip of the middle ﬁnger of the measurer. Assume that the distance ranged from 43 to 53 cm, and suppose that ancient drawings indicate that a cylindrical pillar was to have a length of 9 cubits and a diameter of 2 cubits. For the stated range, what are the lower value and the upper value, respectively, for (a) the cylinder’s length in meters, (b) the cylinder’s length in millimeters, and (c) the cylinder’s volume in cubic meters? 52 As a contrast between the old and the modern and between the large and the small, consider the following: In old rural England 1 hide (between 100 and 120 acres) was the area of land needed to sustain one family with a single plough for one year. (An area of 1 acre is equal to 4047 m2.) Also, 1 wapentake was the area of land needed by 100 such families. In quantum physics, the crosssectional area of a nucleus (deﬁned in terms of the chance of a particle hitting and being absorbed by it) is measured in units of barns, where 1 barn is 1 ϫ 10Ϫ28 m2. (In nuclear physics jargon, if a nucleus is “large,” then shooting a particle at it is like shooting a bul- let at a barn door, which can hardly be missed.) What is the ratio of 25 wapentakes to 11 barns? 53 SSM An astronomical unit An angle of exactly 1 second (AU) is equal to the average distance from Earth to the 1 pc Sun, about 92.9 ϫ 106 mi. A 1 AU parsec (pc) is the distance at 1 pc which a length of 1 AU would Fig. 1-8 Problem 53. subtend an angle of exactly 1 second of arc (Fig. 1-8). A light-year (ly) is the distance that light, traveling through a vacuum with a speed of 186 000 mi/s, would cover in 1.0 year. Express the Earth – Sun distance in (a) parsecs and (b) light-years. 54 The description for a certain brand of house paint claims a coverage of 460 ft2/gal. (a) Express this quantity in square meters per liter. (b) Express this quantity in an SI unit (see Appendices A and D). (c) What is the inverse of the original quantity, and (d) what is its physical signiﬁcance? ...

View Full Document