Why the Chinese Nationalist Party lost the Chinese Civil War.
2868 WordsNov 20th, 200712 Pages
On 1 October 1949, Mao Zedong, leader of the Chinese Communist Party declared victory over the Nationalist Party (Guomindang) and brought an end to four brutally long years of Civil War. The Communist victory in the Civil War has however, created significant debate among historians, namely: was a Communist victory inevitable and if so is it more sensible to see the Chinese Civil War as a Communist victory or as a Nationalist defeat?When researching these questions it becomes blatantly obvious that the Guomindang government led by Chiang Kai-Shek was riddled with problems and they are very much the cause of their own downfall. Widespread government corruption, spiraling inflation, loss of public confidence and intractable poverty are just a…show more content…
At the end of the Sino-Japanese War the Guomindang held significant advantages over the Communists, with its widely recognised legitimate government controlling China, giving it the power to tax and conscript. On the other hand, the Communists could not match the Guomindang's troops in terms of training and equipment and could be "outgunned and outmanoeuvred in all major regions of the country" (Westad, 2003: 8). Furthermore, the Communist party was hardly represented in the cities at all, which of course was the power base of the Guomindang. However, the Communists also had successes resulting from the war with Japan including increasing their area of control and practiced evolving their strategies of protracted guerrilla warfare against the Japanese which in turn generated public support. Despite this the party's main forces were still located in North-west China and they were not in such a powerful position that a civil war with the Guomindang would be a mere formality in securing control of the country.
The Civil War is therefore simply not a case of the imminent decline of the Guomindang and the Communists' irresistible rise. Rather the Sino-Japanese War provided the framework for the decisions and strategies that would ultimately lead to Nationalist defeat. The war with Japan left the Guomindang decimated and they did need to undergo reform in order to survive; however the
Chinese Civil War Essay
China has a very long history; however, there is one event that has entirely changed China: the victory of the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War in 1949. During the Civil War, the Chinese Communist Party, led by Mao Zedong, and the Kuomintang, led by Chiang Kai-Shek, were vying for the power to lead the whole of China. At first, the Kuomintang had the advantage. Although they had just fought very hard during the war between Japan and China, they had the support of the United States. However, in the end, the Communists won. Even though, the Kuomintang had advantages on many things, the Communists fought with more heart and determination.
It might be fortuitous by winning one or two battles, but the ending of the whole war was not providential. There must be something that the Communists could do, but the Kuomintang could not.
First of all, China's war with Japan started the whole event. There is one fact that people need to know - China never really beat Japan during the war from 1937-1945. Rather, the Japanese were weakened by their conflict with the United States that began after they attacked Pearl Harbor. This bombing triggered the United States to join the war. China received a significant amount of economic and military support from the United States, which helped China destroy the Japanese soldiers. At the same time, the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan, which resulted in the Japanese surrender to China as well. If the United States had not become involved and taken military action against Japan in this war, it might have continued for an indefinite period of time.[1: Yubin Zhang, How did China beat Japan (Nanjing: Nanjing University Press, 2006), 209.]
The two Chinese political parties started fighting after the war against Japan ended. At that point in time, Kuomintang was very powerful due to their American backers, and many of their leaders had high educations. After the Communist Party had been attacked by the Kuomintang five times, they only had tens of thousands of soldiers left and even those were almost cornered. Normally, it would be extremely hard for them to rise up again. However, it was surprising to see the turn of events. Not only did the Communist Party continue to exist, but it also kept developing, eventually driving the Kuomintang out of the mainland. [2: Lv Honglai,. "Chinese History," Old Kids. 9 (2011): 464-87.]
There are many reasons why the Communists were able to gain strength, even while at a military disadvantage. For example, when Chiang Kai-Shek was the leader of the country, he had a lot of...
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