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I M Dynamite Assignment Management

The language analysis assignment is quite straightforward. It’s in two parts, grammar and vocabulary. You’re given a particular grammar structure or lexical items, and you have to analyse it and explain how you would go about teaching it. That’s about it really. It might sound simple, but that doesn’t make it easy!

During the course you’ll learn how to introduce target language, more than likely in this order:

Meaning, Form, Pronunciation, Appropriacy

For both grammar and vocabulary items, we were told to lay the analysis out like this:

a) Analysis of meaning (say what it means!)

b) Describe how you would convey the meaning

c) Check students understanding

d) Highlight the form

e) mention any phonological features of the target language

Here are some general tips:

  • For conveying the meaning of a grammar point, you should think about putting the target language in a context. For a word or phrase, think about how ‘concrete’ the word is – you might be able to just show a picture of it, draw it, mime it, etc. It might not be as complicated as you think.
  • To check understanding of a grammar point, timelines might be useful. Also, use concept checking questions (CCQs). It’s worth getting in the habit of using these as you need them often when you’re teaching. Don’t worry, I’m still bad at thinking of them on the spot, and I’ve been teaching 5 years!
  • ‘highlighting the form’ might include giving collocations – words that commonly go alongside the target language. E.g. if you were teaching the word ‘promise’, it might be relevant to teach ‘break a promise’ and ‘keep a promise’
  • Features of pronunciation which might be worth teaching include contractions (I am = I’m) and weak forms, among other things.
  • Whichever target language you are asked to analyse for this assignment, the level of the students should be considered very carefully. Make sure you’re not complicating things by using difficult vocabulary, grade your language appropriately.
  • You might have to mention ‘appropriacy’ when you teach a language item. This means whether it is ok to use the item in certain contexts (e.g. formal/informal situations)

I’m sure you’ll get plenty of advice from your tutors on how to do this task. Still, here’s an example of how I did one grammar point and one vocabulary item. You can download my full assignment if you want to see how it looked. The word limit for this assignment was 1000 words which I’d say is plenty for a thorough analysis of each item.

(note: V1 = present simple, V2 = past simple, V3 = past participle)

Example grammar answer:

Target structure: she’s just gone out

a) Analyse the meaning

‘she’s just gone out’

She was at home (i.e. somewhere). Now, she’s not at home. She only left home a short time ago.

b) Convey the meaning

At ten past six, I arrived at Lady Gaga’s house. I knocked on the door [action]. Her mum opened the door.

 I said to her mum, “is Lady Gaga at home?”

Her mum said, “sorry, Lady Gaga is not here”.

I said, “Oh, er… me and Lady Gaga have a date at six o’clock. ”

Her mum said, “You are late. Lady Gaga was here at 6pm, but she’s just gone out”

I cried.

c) Checking meaning

Is Lady Gaga at home now?                  No

Was she at home at six o’clock?           Yes

So, she left home a long time ago?      No


(use the above to aid explanation, showing the event happened in the recent past)

d) Form

Present Perfect

She        hasjust gone      out

S        +   has / have   +    Adv        V3

e) Phonology

(bold shows stress)

She’s just gone out

with  ‘out’, this makes a phrasal verb – ‘gone out’. With phrasal verbs, the stress is on the preposition

Example vocabulary answer:

Target word: Library (elementary)

a) Meaning analysis

A room or building where you can borrow books (DVDs, etc), read, study, etc.

b) Convey meaning

Display the picture above. Elicit if possible, or model the word.

c) Checking understanding

Is this a book shop?      No

Can I take the books?     Yes

Forever?                          No

Can I read here?             Yes

In here can I TALK LIKE THIS!!!!!!! (loudly…)   No

d) Form: Library is a noun. It is countable (‘library’ becomes ‘libraries’). ‘Library book’ is a common collocation.

e) Phonology: The stress is on the first syllable. The word is sometimes spoken as only two syllables (i.e. ‘lai-bri’, not ‘lai-brer-ri’). Although not incorrect, it might be best if the teacher chooses one spoken form and is consistent.

A final tip on this assignment. You might find that it takes a while to analyse each item thoroughly. Don’t worry. It does get easier with practice. Make the most of the time you spend on this assignment and really think about the process you are undertaking – it will become commonplace in your lesson planning. Good luck with the assignment!

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Posted in CELTA tips and tagged analysing language, CELTA, CELTA assignment 2, efl, elt, IH, IH Budapest, meaning before form, pass the CELTA, teacher training, tefl on by Peter Pun. 15 Comments

So if you’re not using a coursebook, and you can’t wait for some super duper platform with all the bells and whistles like I proposed, then what are you using? 

While I’ve never used Blackboard or Edu-whatever-it’s-called or any of the big brand name edtech platforms, I have tried a few smaller, freer ones, including the now-defunct collaboration tool Wiggio and a sort of Post-it note board whose name I can’t remember.

But when I made the switch from Word and USB-sticks to Google Drive about 5 years ago, I discovered that it was easier to share links to “living documents” than send the files themselves. Sharing a link to master documents means you can always update them, improve them, and most importantly, spell check them (I can proofread other people’s stuff but I’m often totally blind to my own last-minute spelling errors). And you worry much less about whether someone’s got the “right” version.

Then I took the next step to start creating and sharing a Google Doc to collect all the links in one place (which all but eliminates email sending).

Now I use Google Drive to

  • co-create an a posteriori syllabus
  • share teacher- and student-generated documents and links
  • post (and give feedback on) writing homework

My tech approach is by no means revolutionary — in fact, I’d call it a pretty low-tech tech option. But it is what I’m using for the time being.

So in this post I’ll go through these tasks one by one and then mention a few obstacles you might have if you want to try it yourself.


The a posteriori syllabus

When I shifted away from coursebooks I ran into a series of problems:

  1. Organization. I’m not naturally very organized. And lessons ― when you’re producing one after another yourself ― can tend to vanish into nowhere.
  2. Emergent language. Coursebook or not, I’d always wanted some way to keep track of all that great stuff that comes up in class, because whenever you use a coursebook the emergent language seems to fade into the background. It’s hard to compete with Useful language boxes on glossy paged spreads.
  3. I’m also someone who comes into class with a few big events in my mind ― what I think could happen and how long it might take. But I’ve often got more events, or the events expand to bigger than, I’ve planned. So I wanted a place to keep track not of what we were supposed to do, but what we actually did.

For each course I create a Google Doc that I store on in a folder on Google Drive. I create a reference section with few permanent links (and stuff gets added throughout the year).

At the beginning of each course (or as new students are added) I get their email address and share the link. I set everybody’s permission to edit, because I want them writing on it, too. (Nobody actually has to have a Gmail/Drive account exept you.)

Then, as we go, we write up what we did in class. The result looks something like this:

What we do is, each week I copy and paste the syllabus template, and the students take turns writing up the Class Summary and Whiteboard notes (literally what was on the whiteboard) and adding a (hopefully) catchy title to that week’s class.

I always include links to things we might have used in class. I write the homework in the appropriate box, immediately after class. (In this Class Record the page references are to a grammar books, Grammar and Vocabulary for First.) I also link to a lot of activities that I’ve developed over the last few years, like these listening activities.

Learner training

I used to insist that students students get it right and I was very specific about what I wanted. I even created this guide, Writing the Class Syllabus (download Word file), and this activity, Writing a class summary (download Word file), to do on the second day of class. In a nutshell, it trains students to write the correct form by comparing and improving two sub-par class summary texts, like you might in a exam writing task.

I generally don’t do this anymore because I find that students get it, more or less, without this, and I’d rather have them think more about the other students and less about whether they’re following all the rules. Also because exam prep is so product-focused I don’t think they need to worry about getting yet another format picture perfect. But I might be wrong.

If you want to try this yourself, here are a few tips:

  1. To decide who’s doing the Class Record for that week, just go in alphabetical order based on who’s in class that day (it’s the easiest way, trust me).
  2. If you use the How to write… task above, finish the task by having students write up a summary of last week’s class (i.e. writing up Day 1 on Day 2). Then put everybody’s work up on the wall and get students to circulate and check who best fulfilled the task. The “winner” gets to actually put their summary and notes online. This makes for a not a bad start to the year if you want to get students reading and evaluating each other’s work.
  3. If you’re not going to use the How to write task, do the Class Record yourself for the first few classes then give them feedback right away on the first time. If you’re slack, they’ll be.
  4. Encourage the student writing the record to take a photo of the whiteboard for later. You’ll still be amazed at what comes out sometimes in the student’s version of the notes.
  5. Set deadlines for when the students should post the summary/whiteboard notes if you like, but I’m more lenient these days. But always be strict with yourself about putting up the homework right away.
  6. Refer back to the Whiteboard notes for in-class review. I’ll often dictate sentences with stuff from the previous week. It’s always a way of helping the person writing up the Class Record feel their work is worth something.

The Writing file

Another standard feature of my courses is a shared Writing document. It’s linked from the Class Record (see the box at the top of the first image above) and the students post their “formal” writing homework there (stuff for more careful marking and review).

I use the same document to put up a model task and tips, sometimes in the form of comments, as you can see here…

And sometimes just as crazy-man-with-a-highlighter lists.

BTW: I still tend to over-mark (my New Year’s Resolution is to step back from that cliff).

But one thing the Writing doc has saved me from is repeating the same issues that I used to repeat by private email. By having one shared doc I can say “look at what I wrote on Marco’s text”. And it works well for positive elements, too.


Other student contributions

I’ll also create and link blank docs for students to:

  • Create vocabulary lists
  • Create exam-style speaking activities
  • Write writing cheat sheets (summaries of the genre types on the exams)
  • Share Reading Circles contributions

One thing I’ve not been successful at is getting students to comment “socially” ― on each other’s work, or whatever. But Google Docs is for collaboration (I use it for collaborating on copywriting at my other job), so I’m sure there are plenty of more opportunities for the eager teacher.

Other programs

And of course, there are other useful (but standard) programs in the Google Drive suite, all of which I’ve used at various times:

  • Google Forms ― you can use to make surveys, homework activities or feedback forms.
  • Google Sheets ― like Excel, and I always make attendance forms that automatically total up days in class, etc.
  • Google Slides ― like PowerPoint, and we always use them for storing and running Pecha Kucha presentations

Some obstacles


There are some technical issues with Apple users. I’m not an Apple user, but I believe things work much better if they download the Google Docs app for iOS (but they still might have issues viewing comments).

Another technical issue might be that students, with editing power, can delete everything on the doc. But I’ve never had that happen, whatever age the students (I’ve taught from 13 years old on up), and even if it did you can always view and revert to a previous version in the Version Control menu.


I’ve never had any problems with say, a shared writing doc that everyone can see. Everybody gets into it. And knowing that everybody can see your comments means I’ve become much more careful about not sounding too negative. It’s made me more human. But you know your situation better than I do so you be the judge if it would work for you.


Lastly, as Paul Walsh pointed out re my last post, in-company classes put up all sorts of barriers to using tech.

I’ve had companies that block Google Drive, companies that let employees look at Google Docs but block any further links from those docs, and companies that gave me permission (but not the employees) to access it, though I quickly found out that the wi-fi was terminally malfunctioning and useless.

The good thing about Drive is that you can set documents to be editable offline. So even if you can’t connect, you can come into class with the doc open, add the homework or whatever without the connection, and it will automatically sync when you return to digital civilization.

But, in reality, I mostly don’t use the Class Record in class. The Class Record is there to keep us all together when we’re not right there in front of each other. Because that’s where the teaching and the collaboration and conversation happens, and I don’t need an app for that.


I’d love to hear if you’re using Google Drive and what for or if you’ve got better ways to give your course a little backbone without ever cracking a coursebook spine.



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